Тhe Department of Geology and Paleontology has been officially established in 1904 as one of the 17 departments of the Faculty of Physics and Mathematics under the name . In the first years of its development the Department of Geology and Paleontology included one professor and one assistant professor. After the first 40 years, the members of the Department became six in number. In 1945 the Department of Paleontology was organized as a separate institution. In 1950 the Department of Engineering Geology was also established but one year later it was integrated with the State Polytechnic University. In 1954 the Department of Fossil Fuels was also organized as a separate one.

In 1991 the three existing departments (Paleontology, Dynamic and Historical Geology and Fossil Fuels) are combined in the Department of Geology and Paleontology. The present-day name of the Department was given in 2009.

The main contribution for the development of both teaching and research belongs to some outstanding scientists like Acad. Georgi Bonchev, Prof. Georgi Zlatarski, Prof. Stafan Bonchev, Prof. Dimitar Yaranov, Acad. Ekim Bonchev, Prof. Vasil Tzankov, Prof. Georgi Shishkov, Acad. Todor Nikolov, Prof. Zhivko Ivanov, Prof. Georgi Mandov, Prof. Nikola Yolkichev.

At present the Department includes thirteen lecturers – two professors, seven associate professors and four assistant professors. The main courses in the department are Fundamentals of Geology, Paleontology, Stratigraphy, Historical geology, Structural geology and geotectonics, Geology of Bulgaria, Geological mapping, Oil and gas geology, Coal geology. Several practical courses are organized – Fundamentals of Geology, Paleontology and Stratigraphy, Geological mapping, Structural geology, geology of Bulgaria.

The Depatment of Geology, Paleontology and Fossil Fuels offers a graduate program in Geology.